ANGOLA
Parliamentary Chamber: Assembleia nacional

ELECTIONS HELD IN 1992

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Chamber:
  Assembleia nacional


Dates of elections / renewal (from/to):

  29 September 1992
30 September 1992


Purpose of elections:

  Elections were held for 220 of the 223 seats in the National Assembly pursuant to the May 1991 peace agreement designed to end the country's 16-year civil war. General elections had previously taken place in December 1986.


Background and outcome of elections:

  On 31 May 1991, President of the Republic Josť Eduardo dos Santos signed a peace accord with Mr. Jonas Savimbi, leader of the National Union for the total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which was intended to put an end to the protracted 16-year civil war in the country. Following this accord, President dos Santos announced in November 1991 that parliamentary elections were foreseen for the second half of September 1992, pending consultations with all political associations with a view to setting a firm date.

These elections were finally held on 29 and 30 September, simultaneously with presidential polling. They were the first-ever free elections in the country's history and were supervised by the UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM), which had been set up to oversee compliance with the peace accord. Some 800 international monitors were present.

Voter registration took place from 20 May to 31 July.

The main contestants for the 220 Assembly seats to be filled were President dos Santos' Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Workers' Party (MPLA-PT) and Mr. Jonas Savimbi's UNITA; 16 other smaller parties also presented candidates, in accordance with the constitutional amendments of April 1992 allowing multipartyism. Campaigning took place in an atmosphere of tension and anxiety, with the atrocities of the civil war still lingering in the memories of many Angolans. This tension was heightened by calls by the separatist movement in Cabinda province, the FLEC, for a boycott of the elections. While Mr. dos Santos stressed the need for political stability and unity among Angola's different tribes and classes, Mr. Savimbi's campaign message was anti-foreigner. He sharply condemned the former Portuguese colonial masters and promised native Angolans benefits and most positions of power.

Polling was massive and generally calm, with the National Electoral Council reporting that more than 75% of the registered voters had been to the polls during the first day. The UN mounted an extensive airlift to enable people in remote areas to reach polling stations.

When early returns indicated MPLA victories in both the parliamentary and the presidential races, Mr. Savimbi rejected the results, claiming widespread rigging by the Government, and withdrew UNITA forces from the new unified Angolan army. Fighting subsequently broke out in Luanda and several other provinces. International observers including UNAVEM II concluded that the elections had been generally free and fair. Following international pressure in a hope to achieve a peaceful and negotiated settlement of the crisis, the National Electoral Council delayed publishing the final results beyond the statutory eight-day deadline.

On 17 October, the Government announced that Mr. dos Santos obtained 49.57% of the votes in the presidential election (falling just short of the 50% needed to avoid a run-off) while Mr. Savimbi obtained 40.07%. In the parliamentary polls, the MPLA obtained an absolute majority with 129 seats as against 70 for UNITA. Following a resumption of hostilities between these two rivals, the second round of presidential elections was held in abeyance.

On 26 October, the first-ever multiparty Parliament convened in Luanda in the absence of the UNITA members and, on 2 December, President dos Santos announced a new Government headed by Prime Minister Marcolino Moco. Most ministerial portfolios went to the MPLA but UNITA was offered six posts (which it subsequently accepted) while four smaller parties were also represented.

STATISTICS
Round no 1 (29 September 1992): Elections results  
Number of registered electors 4,828,468
Voters 4,410,575 (91.34%)
Blank or invalid ballot papers 458,310
Valid votes 3,952,265

Round no 1: Distribution of votes  
Political Group Votes %
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Workers’ Party (MPLA-PT) 2,124,126 53.74
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 1,347,636 34.10
Social Renovated Party (PRS) 89,875 2.27
Angolan National Liberation Front (FNLA) 94,742 2.40
Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) 94,267 2.39
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD) 35,293 0.89
Democratic Alliance (AD) coalition 34,166 0.86
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 33,088 0.84
Angola Youth, Worker, Peasant Alliance party (PAJOCA) 13,924 0.35
Angolan Democratic Forum (FDA) 12,038 0.30
Democratic Party for Progress – Angolan National Alliance (PDP-ANA) 10,620 0.27
Angolan National Democratic Party (PNDA) 10,281 0.26
Others 52,219 1.33

Round no 1: Distribution of seats  
Political Group Total
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Workers’ Party (MPLA-PT) 129
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 70
Social Renovated Party (PRS) 6
Angolan National Liberation Front (FNLA) 5
Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) 3
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD) 1
Democratic Alliance (AD) coalition 1
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 1
Angola Youth, Worker, Peasant Alliance party (PAJOCA) 1
Angolan Democratic Forum (FDA) 1
Democratic Party for Progress – Angolan National Alliance (PDP-ANA) 1
Angolan National Democratic Party (PNDA) 1
Others 0

Comments:
  The National Electoral Council decided, with the consent of all political parties, that the three seats for Angolans abroad should not be filled. Due to the war, it was not possible to hold new elections in 1996 or 2000. Members' term of office has been extended until the new elections are held.

Distribution of seats according to sex:  
Men: 199
Women: 21


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Copyright © 1992 Inter-Parliamentary Union