Parliamentary Chamber: Senado


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Dates of elections / renewal (from/to):

  8 April 1990

Purpose of elections:

  Elections were held for all the seats in Parliament on the normal expiry of the members’ term of office.

Background and outcome of elections:

  The 1990 congressional elections were held simultaneously with those for President of the Republic and regional councillors. The incumbent President, Mr. Alan Garcia Perez of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), could not seek re-election under the Electoral Law.

The somewhat violent electoral campaign was waged around one overriding issue: the country’s economy. The early favorite in the presidential race, Mr. Mario Vargas Llosa of the right-wing coalition Democratic Front (FREDEMO), proposed to eliminate subsidies and price controls, privatize State-run enterprises, open the economy to foreign investment and impose fiscal and monetary controls aimed at reducing inflation to 10% per year. The main challenger turned out to be Mr. Alberto Fujimori, a candidate of his own recently founded Change 90 (Cambio 90) group who likewise advocated generally conservative policies but rejected "shock" adjustments, asserting that these would increase unemployment and suffering. Compared to Mr. Llosa, he ran a spartan campaign, appealing to the country’s impoverished classes, with a basic message of honesty and hard work. Mr. Luis Alva Castro was the nominee of the ruling, social democratic APRA.

Polling day was marked by a large turnout despite a widespread effort by the Maoist guerrilla group Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) to disrupt the voting. In the presidential contest, Mr. Fujimori, who had spoken out for aggressive police and military action to fight the guerrillas, came in a strong second to Mr. Llosa, but neither gained the necessary absolute majority to avoid a second round. The parallel congressional elections reflected the same trends, with no party an overall winner in either House.

On 3 June, Mr. Fujimori, a Peruvian of Japanese descent, won the runoff election over Mr. Llosa, a popular Latin American novelist. He took office as President on 28 July. The new Council of Ministers, sworn in the same day, is headed by Prime Minister Juan Carlos Hurtado Miller.

Round no 1 (8 April 1990): Elections results  
Number of registered electors 9,923,062
Voters 7,866,858 (79.27%)
Blank or invalid ballot papers 1,207,782
Valid votes 6,659,076

Round no 1: Distribution of seats  
Political Group Total
Democratic Front (FREDEMO) 20
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) 17
Cambio 90 14
United Left (IU) 6
Socialist Left 3
National Front of Workers and Peasants (FNTC/FRENATRACA) 1
Independents 1

  These figures include two former Presidents of the Republic (Senators for life), one from FREDEMO and one from APRA.

Distribution of seats according to sex:  
Men: 56
Women: 4

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Copyright 1990 Inter-Parliamentary Union