|>>> VERSION FRANÇAISE |
of national parliaments
|History and the present |
| BEFORE 1945|
- Austria was the only State to have elected a woman to the presidency of one of the Parliament's Chambers (the Bundesrat) before the Second World War.
| FROM 1945 TO 1997|
- Only 42 of the 186 States with a legislative institution have, at one time or another in recent history, selected a woman to preside over Parliament or a House of Parliament: this has occurred 78 times in all.
- Those concerned are 18 European countries, 19 countries of the Americas, 3 African countries, 1 Asian country and 1 country in the Pacific.
- 24 of the States concerned had a bicameral Parliament, and the presidency was entrusted to a woman a little more often in the Senate than in the lower House.
| AT PRESENT: SITUATION AS OF 1 OCTOBER 2019|
- Only 60 women preside over one of the Houses of the 192 Parliaments, 79 of which are bicameral. Women therefore occupy only 21.6% of the total number of 278 posts of Presiding Officers of Parliament or of one of its Houses. The posts are comprised as follows:
- 266 parliamentary chambers with one presiding officer each;
- Three chambers with two presiding officers each (San Marino's single chamber, the US Senate and the Liberian Senate);
- Two chambers with three presiding officers each (Bosnia-Herzegovina's lower and upper chambers).
- The countries concerned are:
Andorra (General Council);
Antigua and Barbuda (Senate);
Bahrain (Council of Representatives);
Bangladesh (Jatiya Sangsad);
Belize (House of Representatives);
Bolivia (Chamber of Senators);
Bosnia and Herzegovina (House of representatives);
Botswana (National Assembly);
Bulgaria (National Assembly);
Democratic Republic of the Congo (National Assembly);
Dominica (House of Assembly);
Equatorial Guinea (Senado);
Ethiopia (House of Peoples Representatives and House of the Federation);
Gambia (the) (National Assembly);
Indonesia (House of Representatives);
Japan (House of Concillors);
Lao People's Democratic Republic (Saphs Heng Xat);
Madagascar (National Assembly);
Malawi (National Assembly);
Mauritius (National Assembly);
Mexico (Chamber of Deputies and Senate);
Mozambique (Assembleia da Republica);
Namibia (National Council);
Netherlands (Eerste Kamer der Staten Generaal);
Republic of Moldova (Parliament);
Russian Federation (Soviet Federatsii);
Rwanda (Chamber of Deputies);
Saint Lucia (Senate);
San Marino (Great and General Council);
Serbia (Narodna skupstina);
South Africa (National Assembly);
Spain (Congress of Deputies);
Suriname (Nationale Assemblee);
Switzerland (National Council);
Togo (National Assembly);
Trinidad and Tobago (House of representatives and Senate);
United Arab Emirates (Majlis Watani Itihadi);
United States of America (House of Representatives);
Uruguay (House of Representatives and Senate);
Viet Nam (National Assembly);
Date at which, for the first time in the country's parliamentary history,
a woman became Presiding Officer of Parliament or of one of its Houses.
* In 1993, Ms. Leticia Ramos-Shahani was elected first woman President pro tempore of the Senate.