HOME -> PARLINE -> CHAD (Assemblée nationale)
Print this pagePrint this page
PARLINE database new searchNew search
Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

This page contains the full text of the PARLINE database entry on the selected parliamentary chamber, with the exception of Oversight and Specialized bodies modules which, because of their excessive length, can be only viewed and printed separately.


Parliament name (generic / translated) Assemblée nationale / National Assembly
More photos  >>>
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Affiliation to the IPU Yes
Affiliation date(s) 2011 -
President Haroun Kabadi (M) 
Notes Elected on 23 June 2011.
Secretary General Mahamat Hassan Brémé (M) 
Members (statutory / current number) 188 / 177

More statistics  >>>
Women (current number) 27 (15.25%)
Mode of designation directly elected 188
Term 4 years
Notes In accordance with law n°011/PR/2015, the term of the third legislature, elected in 2011, has been extended until the new legislature is convened.

In accordance with the 2018 constitutional amendments, the term of the National Assembly will be modified from 4 to 5 years starting from the next legislature (4th Parliament).
Last renewal dates 13 February 2011
6 May 2011 (View details)
Address Assemblée nationale
Palais du 15 janvier
(Export mailing lists)
Phone (235) 66 24 20 93
99 91 24 34
E-mail srelationsexterieures2011@yahoo.fr


Parliament name (generic / translated) Assemblée nationale / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Electoral law 1 January 1900
Mode of designation directly elected 188
Constituencies 116 electoral districts, including 70 smaller communal districts. Seats aredivided up among these districts on the basis of population:
- one seat is automatically allocated to each electoral district with a population of 50,000 inhabitants or less (91 districts fell into this category)
- an additional seat is allocated for each additional tranche of 40,000 inhabitants (25 districts fell into this category)
- in both cases, a seat is allocated if the remainder is 30,000 inhabitants or more.
Voting system Mixed: Mixed system:
- absolute majority vote in two rounds in the 25 single-member constituencies
- party-list system in the 34 multi-member constituencies. Each list bears two to five names. Any list which obtains the absolute majority of votes in a constituency is awarded all the seats therein. In a contrary case, seats are distributed proportionately according to the votes obtained by each list. Remaining seats are allocated according to the highest average formula.
Vacancies arising between general elections are filled through by-elections held within three months. No such election takes place within 12 months of the end of the legislature's term.
Voting is not compulsory.
Voter requirements - age: 18 years
- Chadian citizenship
- full possession of civil and political rights
- disqualifications: insanity, criminal conviction, undischarged bankrupts, contempt of court, prison sentence of at least two months for certain offences
Eligibility Qualified electors
- age: 25 years
- Chadian citizenship
- residence in country for at least one year
- ability to read and write French or Arabic
- ineligibility: persons under guardianship, those having acquired Chadian nationality in the last 10 years
Incompatibilities - Some senior officials, members of the armed forces or administrators who laid down their office in the district in which they are standing for election less than six months previously
Candidacy requirements - presentation by the political parties by means of lists of candidates containing as many names as there are seats to be filled in each district
- deposit of CFA 250,000 reimbursed if the candidates obtains at least 10% of the votes cast in the constituency.


Parliament name (generic / translated) Assemblée nationale / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Dates of election / renewal (from/to) (from/to)13 February 2011
6 May 2011
Timing and scope of renewal Elections were held for all seats in the National Assembly.
The February 2011 parliamentary elections were the first to be held since 2002. At stake were 188 seats (up from 155) in the National Assembly.

In the previous elections held in April 2002, the Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) - led by President Idriss Deby, who had seized power in a coup in 1990 - took 113 of the 155 seats. Among the opposition parties that won parliamentary representation, the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) and the Front of Action Forces for the Republic (FAR) took 10 seats each, the National Rally for Development and Progress (Viva-RNDP) and the National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR) took five seats each while the Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) took three. Another nine parties took one seat each.

The term of the outgoing members of the National Assembly was officially due to end in June 2006. However, it was successively extended until 2011, to agree on the conditions under which new parliamentary elections would be held.

In August 2007, after six months of negotiations mediated by the European Union, the government and the Coordination for the Defence of the Constitution (CPDC) - an opposition alliance formed in 2005, which comprised some 20 parliamentary and non-parliamentary parties by then - agreed to postpone the elections from December 2007 to 2009. The agreement also provided for the creation of a new independent national election commission (CENI, composed of an equal number of government and opposition members) and a new national census to prepare computerized and tamper-proof electoral lists and biometric voters' cards with a view to preventing electoral fraud. Among the major opposition forces, only the FAR did not sign the agreement. FAR leader Ngarlejy Yorongar had insisted that the agreement should also include opposition parties in exile, rebels and civil society.

The 2007 agreement stipulated that the CPDC would participate in the management of public affairs until the new elections. In April 2008, President Deby appointed his diplomatic adviser, Mr. Youssouf Saleh Abbas, as the new Prime Minister. Mr. Abbas' government comprised four members of the CPDC. RDP leader Lol Mahamat Choua was appointed to head a committee to oversee implementation of the agreement. The CENI was established in July 2009 with a view to holding parliamentary and presidential elections in 2010 and 2011 respectively.

In January 2010, the CENI announced that parliamentary elections would be held on 28 November 2010, to be followed by the first round of the presidential elections on 23 April 2011. Over 4.8 million people were registered to vote out of the country's 11 million inhabitants.

In September, the CPDC threatened to boycott the parliamentary elections unless they were guaranteed access to media coverage during the election campaign. On 27 September 2010, the CENI announced that it would postpone the parliamentary elections to February 2011. It cited difficulties with preparations and delays in the distribution of election material. The elections were subsequently set for 6 February 2011. In December, President Deby, at the opposition's request, agreed to replace the chief of the CENI. Consequently on 13 January 2011 the CENI announced that elections would be put back to 13 February.

On 26 January, the MPS officially launched an electoral alliance called the Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad with two parties in the CPDC: Mr. Choua's RDP and the Viva-RNDP of former prime minister Kassiré Coumakoye. In addition to their own candidates, the parties in the alliance fielded a few joint candidates.

In all, 1,409 candidates, including 145 women, were vying for seats in the National Assembly. Only the MPS fielded candidates in all constituencies. Other parties in the CPDC - the URD, led by Defence Minister Wadel Abdelkader Kamougué, and the UNDR of Mr. Saleh Kebzabo - fielded a dozen candidates respectively.

The MPS was the only party to organize a nationwide election campaign. MPS Secretary General, Mr. Haroun Kabadi, called on voters' support for the MPS-led Alliance to advance the country and bring about a genuine renaissance. The RDP pledged to make Chad "a new, friendly and peaceful country". RDP leader Choua argued that President Deby had changed and the RDP would support the President's ambitions for the country. Viva-RNDP leader Coumakoye urged his party's supporters to vote for the Alliance, claiming that it would give the Viva-RNDP a chance to participate in the government and thereby consolidate democracy.

The opposition forces, including the CPDC, struggled to gain visibility during the election campaign. The CPDC accused the government of using the oil revenue (115,000 barrels per day are produced in Chad) to fund the military instead of investing it to promote development and combat poverty. It sought to double the presence of opposition forces in the newly elected legislature.

In all, 62.56 per cent of the 4.8 million registered voters turned out at the polls. Voting took place without any major incident. URD leader Kamougué claimed voting irregularities, including the use of fake identity cards and ballot box-stuffing.

Observers from the European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) monitored the elections. The EU, while noting logistical hitches, praised the peaceful elections and termed them a historic turning point for the country.

On 22 March 2011, the Constitutional Council validated the results for 175 of the 188 seats. Fresh elections were held for the remaining 13 seats on 6 May. On 9 May, URD leader Kamougué passed away.

The final results gave 117 seats to the MPS. Its allies - the RDP and the Viva-RNDP - took additional 14 seats. Among the opposition parties, the UNDR came in first with ten seats. The URD and the FAR took eight and four seats respectively. The remainder went to 19 small parties which took one seat each. In all, 24 women were elected.

On 23 June, the newly elected National Assembly held its first session and elected Mr. Haroun Kabadi (MPS) as its Speaker.
Voter turnout
Round no 113 February 2011
Number of registered electors
Blank or invalid ballot papers
Valid votes

Distribution of votes
Round no 1
Political group Candidates Votes % of votes
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS)
National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR)
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) JAMAA
Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD)
Rally of Chadian Nationalists/Awakening (RNDT/ Le Réveil)
National Rally for Development and Progress (Viva-RNDP)
Front of Action Forces for the Republic (FAR)
Party for Unity and Reconstruction (PUR)
Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR) - Tabbat
Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power (PDSA)
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development (CTPD)
Distribution of seats
Round no 1
Political Group Total of seats Election of 13 Feb. Election of 6 May
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) 117 113 4
Others 19 17 2
National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR) 10 9 1
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) JAMAA 9 8 1
Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) 8 7 1
Rally of Chadian Nationalists/Awakening (RNDT/ Le Réveil) 8 7 1
National Rally for Development and Progress (Viva-RNDP) 5 4 1
Front of Action Forces for the Republic (FAR) 4 3 1
Party for Unity and Reconstruction (PUR) 2 2 0
Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR) - Tabbat 2 1 1
Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power (PDSA) 2 2 0
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development (CTPD) 2 2 0
Distribution of seats according to sex


Percent of women


Distribution of seats according to age
Distribution of seats according to profession
Source: National Assembly (06.04.2011, 01.06.2011, 23.06.2011, 22.10.2012, 15.07.2018)

The "Others" above comprises the following 19 parties which won one seat each:
2. Chadian Democratic Union (UDT)
3. Movement for Democracy and Socialism in Chad (MDST)
5. National Alliance for Democracy and Development (AND)
6. Party for Democracy and Full Independence (PDI)
7. National Alliance for Democracy and Development (AND/R)
8. African Party for Peace and Justice (PAP/JS)
9. New Breath of Air for the Republic (SONOR)
11. Union of Democratic Forces - Republican Party (UFD/PR)
12. Union of Chadian Environmentalists/The Greens (UET/V)
13. Party for Freedoms and Development (PLD)
15. Action for the Renewal of Chad (ART)
16. Movement of Chadian Patriots for the Republic (MPTR)
17. Movement for the Peace and Development of Chad (MPDT)
18. PDPT (the seat filled in the partial election of 6 May 2011.)
19. USND (idem.)


Parliament name (generic / translated) Assemblée nationale / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Title Speaker of the National Assembly
Term - duration: 4 years (term of House)
- reasons for interruption of the term: resignation, death, dissolution
Appointment - elected by all the Members of the National Assembly (quorum : 2/3)
- election is held at the first meeting of the newly elected Assembly or when a vacancy occurs
- after the roll-call of the Deputies
Eligibility - any Deputy can be a candidate
- candidatures must be deposited at least one hour before the election
Voting system - formal vote by secret ballot
- absolute majority in the first round, relative majority in the second round
Procedures / results - the eldest Deputy presides over the Assembly during the voting
- the two secretaries of the provisional Board composed by the eldest Members oversee the voting, with the help of two Deputies appointed by the Assembly
- the eldest Deputy announces the results without any delay
Status - represents the Assembly with the public authorities
- in the absence of the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker (by order of rank) can assume his/her role and functions
Board - consists of the President, four Vice Presidents, four Secretaries, a Quaestor and a Deputy-Quaestor
Material facilities - the President has a Cabinet composed of a principal private Secretary, a Chargé de Mission, a private Secretary, three technical advisers, an executive Secretary, typist, three Secretary agents including a aide de camp, two protocol officers, two press officers, two divers and a orderly.
Organization of parliamentary business - convenes sessions
- establishes and modifies the agenda
- organizes the debates and sets speaking time
- refers texts to a committee for study
Chairing of public sittings - can open, adjourn and close sittings
- ensures respect for provisions of the Constitution and Standing Orders
- makes announcements concerning the Assembly
- takes disciplinary measures in the event of disturbance, and lifts such measures
- establishes the list of speakers, gives and withdraws permission to speak
- calls for a vote, decides how it is to be carried out, verifies the voting procedure and cancels a vote in the event of irregularities
- authenticates the adopted texts and the records of debates
Special powers - is responsible for establishing the budget
- organizes the services of Parliament (jointly with the Clerk and the Questor)
- is responsible for safety, and in this capacity, can call the police in the event of disturbance in the Chamber
Speaking and voting rights, other functions NA (no information received)


Parliament name (generic / translated) Assemblée nationale / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Nature of the mandate · Free representation (Art. 116 (2) of the Constitution of 14.04.1996, Art. 152 (3) of the Electoral Code; see also Art. 117 (1) of the Constitution)
Start of the mandate · When the National Assembly has been installed
Validation of mandates · Validation only in case of challenge, by the Court of Appeal (Art. 166 (2) and 238 of the Constitution, Art. 197 of the Electoral Code)
· Procedure (Art. 185 to 193 of the Electoral Code)
End of the mandate · On the day when the newly elected Parliament meets
Can MPs resign? Yes · Yes, of their own free will
· Procedure: letters of resignations must be addressed to the President of the National Assembly, who conveys them to his colleagues and to the Prime Minister.
Can MPs lose their mandate ? Yes (a) Definitive exclusion from Parliament by the latter: Loss of mandate for incompatibility (Art. 161 (2), 163 (2) and 173 of the Electoral Code)
(b) Loss of mandate by judicial decision:
- Loss according to the procedure of ordinary law following lifting of immunity
- Loss of mandate for ineligibility (Art. 159 (1) of the Electoral Code)
Rank in hierarchy · Within Parliament:
1. The President
2. The Vice-Presidents
3. The Secretaries
4. The Questors
5. Chairpersons of parliamentary groups
6. Presidents of committees
7. Rapporteurs
8. The other deputies
Indemnities, facilities and services · Diplomatic passport
· Basic salary: CFA F 500,000 per month
+ Sessional allowance: CFA F 450,000 per year
+ Additional allowance: for certain functions
· Partial exemption from tax. 10.5 % tax on the monthly salary.
· No special pension scheme
· Other facilities:
(a) Official car for Board members, chairpersons of parliamentary groups and Committee Presidents
(b) Security guards for the President
Obligation to declare personal assets No
Parliamentary immunity - parliamentary non-accountability · The concept does exist (Art. 114 (1) and (2) of the Constitution).
· Parliamentary non-accountability is limited to words spoken or written by MPs and votes cast within Parliament.
· Derogations:
· Non-accountability takes effect on the day when the mandate begins and offers, after the expiry of the mandate, protection against prosecution for opinions expressed during the exercise of the mandate.
Parliamentary immunity - parliamentary inviolability · The concept does exist (Art. 114 (3) and (4) of the Constitution).
· It applies only to criminal proceedings, covers all offences and protects MPs from arrest and from being held in preventive custody, from the opening of judicial proceedings against them and from their homes being searched.
· Derogations:
- When Parliament is in session, prosecution or arrest in criminal proceedings is possible in cases of flagrante delicto (Art. 114 (3) of the Constitution).
- When Parliament is not in session, arrest is possible in cases of flagrante delicto, authorised prosecution or final sentencing (Art. 114 (4) of the Constitution).
In cases involving flagrante delicto, the Board of the Assembly is immediately informed of the arrest (Art. 114 (6) of the Constitution).
· Parliamentary inviolability prevents MPs from being called as witnesses before a judge or tribunal.
· Protection is provided from the start to the end of the mandate.
· Parliamentary immunity (inviolability) can be lifted (Art. 114 (3) and (4) of the Constitution):
- Competent authority: the National Assembly (when Parliament is in session), the Board (when Parliament is in recess)
- Procedure (Art. 114 (5) of the Constitution). In this case, MPs can be heard. They have means of appeal.
· Parliament cannot subject the prosecution and/or detention to certain conditions.
· Parliament cannot suspend the prosecution and/or detention of one of its members.
· In the event of preventive custody or imprisonment, the MPs concerned cannot be authorised to attend sittings of Parliament.
Training · There is a training/initiation process on parliamentary practices and procedures for MPs.
· It is provided by national and foreign experts who run seminars.
· There is no handbook of parliamentary procedure.
Participation in the work of the Parliament · It is compulsory for MPs to be present at plenary sittings, committee and other meetings.
· Penalties foreseen in case of failure to fulfil this obligation: forfeiture of the sessional allowance
Code (rules) of conduct · This concept does not exist in the country's juridical system but there are some relevant provisions (Art. 161 (2), 163 (2) and 173 of the Electoral Code).
· Penalties foreseen for violation of the code of conduct : loss of mandate (Art. 161 (2), 163 (2) and 173 of the Electoral Code; incompatibility)
· Competent body to judge such cases/to impose penalties: the National Assembly
· Procedure (Art. 173 of the Electoral Code).
Relations between MPs and pressure group · There are no legal provisions in this field.

This page was last updated on 16 July 2018
Copyright 1996-2016 Inter-Parliamentary Union