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Pratinidhi Sabha (House of Representatives)

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A historical Archive of past election results for this chamber can be found on a separate page

Parliament name (generic / translated) Sanghiya Sansad / Federal Parliament
Structure of parliament Bicameral
Chamber name (generic / translated) Pratinidhi Sabha / House of Representatives
Related chamber (for bicameral parliaments) Rastriya Sabha / National Assembly
Dates of election / renewal (from/to) (from/to)26 November 2017
7 December 2017
Purpose of elections The alliance between the Communist Party of Nepal (UML, led by former Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli) and the Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre (CPN-MC, see note 1, led by former Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal "Prachanda"), won the elections for the new 275-member House of Representatives (see note 2), the lower chamber of the Federal Parliament. Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba's Nepali Congress (NC) came third. The Maoist Centre party had backed Mr. Deuba in the premiership election in June 2017 to succeed Mr. Pushpa Kamal Dahal (CPN-MC) but announced an alliance with the UML in October 2017, stating that two parties would aim to merge.

Shortly before the first phase of the elections, the NC government announced it would scrap a hydropower project signed with a Chinese company under the previous government, while extending the deadline for another hydropower project developed by an Indian company. The UML-CPN-MC alliance pledged to revoke the NC government's decision. They called for the extension of the Chinese railway network into Nepal and the construction of an airport and other infrastructure projects to create jobs. They also promised to terminate the India-Nepal Peace and Friendship Treaty 1950.

On 15 February 2017, Mr. Oli (UML) was sworn in as the Prime Minister. The convening of the House of Representatives and the National Assembly (upper chamber, see note 3) on 5 March 2018, marked the official end of the interim parliament installed in 2007 (see note 4).

On 13 March 2018, the House of Representatives, the National Assembly and 550 members from the Provincial Council re-elected Ms. Bidya Bhandari (UML) as the country's President.

Note 1:
The Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre (CPN-MC) was formed by 10 Maoist parties in May 2016. They included the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists), led by former Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal. That party was also known as the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (UCPN) after the merger of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre-Masal) in January 2009.

Note 2:
165 members are elected under the First Past The Post (FPTP) system and 110 others under the List Proportional Representation (List PR) system. Political parties fielding candidates under the Proportional Representation system are required to ensure representation for women and a number of social, ethnic and religious groups. Women should account for at least one third of the total members elected from each party to the Federal Parliament. In the event that a party fails to reach that number under the FPTP system, it needs to elect more women under the List PR system so as to ensure that one third of its total candidates-elect are women.

Note 3:
The National Assembly comprises 59 members in all, of whom 56 are elected by an Electoral College comprising members of the Provincial Assembly, chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of municipal councils. Three other members, including at least one woman, are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Government.

Note 3:
The previous House of Representatives, elected in 1999, was dissolved in May 2002 in view of early parliamentary elections. Following Maoist rebels' threat to disrupt the elections, Prime Minister Deuba asked the King to defer the polls by a year. The King then dismissed the government and subsequently postponed the elections indefinitely. In February 2005 King Gyanendra assumed absolute direct power over the kingdom, accusing the government of failing to make arrangements for parliamentary elections. Parliament was unable to meet since the Constitution stipulated that the National Assembly (the upper chamber) could not be convened without the House of Representatives. In April 2006, following a wave of street protests calling for new elections, King Gyanendra agreed to reinstate the House of Representatives.
After numerous postponements, an interim constitution was promulgated by the House of Representatives in January 2007. The House of Representatives then dissolved itself in favour of a unicameral 330-member interim legislature called the Legislative Parliament. The first Constituent Assembly, elected in April 2008, took over as a new interim legislature. Despite repeated extensions of its two-year term, the first Constituent Assembly was unable to agree a new Constitution as part of the transformation of Nepal from a kingdom to a republic. Elections for the second Constituent Assembly took place in November 2013, and a new Constitution was adopted in 2015. In accordance with its transitional provisions, the second Constituent Assembly was transformed into the Legislature-Parliament on 20 September 2015, upon promulgation of the Constitution.
Date of previous elections: 13 October 2017*
*The date of dissolution of the Legislature-Parliament.

Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature: 19 November 2013*
*The date of the election to the second Constituent Assembly. Elections to the previous House of Representatives had been held on 3 and 17 May 1999.

Timing of election: Upon normal expiry*
In accordance with article 296 of the 2015 Constitution, the second Constituent Assembly, elected in November 2013, was transformed into the Legislature-Parliament on 20 September 2015 upon promulgation of the Constitution. The term of the Legislature-Parliament was up to 21 January 2018.

Expected date of next elections: November - December 2022

Number of seats at stake: 275 (full renewal)

Number of candidates: 705

Number of parties contesting the election: 49 parties under the proportional representation system

Alternation of power: not applicable*
*The composition of the Government changed before the 2017 elections.

Date of the first session of the new parliament: 5 March 2018

Name of the new Speaker: Mr. Krishna Bahadur Mahara (Communist Party of Nepal, UML)
Voter turnout
Round no 1 (from/to)26 November 2017
7 December 2017
Number of registered electors
Blank or invalid ballot papers
Valid votes

Distribution of votes
Round no 1
Political Group Candidates Votes %
Communist Party of Nepal (UML)
Nepali Congress (NC)
Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre (CPN-MC)
Rastriya Janata Party Nepal (RJP)
Federal Socialist Forum Nepal (FSFN)
Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal (RPP, National Democratic Party Nepal)
Naya Shakti Party
Rastriya Janamorcha
Nepal Majdur Kisan (Nepal Workers Peasants Party)
Distribution of seats
Round no 1
Political Group Total Majority seats Proportional seats
Communist Party of Nepal (UML) 121 80 41
Nepali Congress (NC) 63 23 40
Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre (CPN-MC) 53 36 17
Rastriya Janata Party Nepal (RJP) 17 11 6
Federal Socialist Forum Nepal (FSFN) 16 10 6
Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal (RPP, National Democratic Party Nepal) 1 1 0
Naya Shakti Party 1 1 0
Rastriya Janamorcha 1 1 0
Nepal Majdur Kisan (Nepal Workers Peasants Party) 1 1 0
Independents 1 1 0
Distribution of seats according to sex
Percent of women
Distribution of seats according to age
Distribution of seats according to profession
Sources :
Election Commission of Nepal (20.02.2018)

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