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Quoc-Hoi (National Assembly)


Parliament name (generic / translated) Quoc-Hoi / National Assembly
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Structure of parliament Unicameral
Affiliation to the IPU Yes
Affiliation date(s) 1957 - 1963
1968 - 1975
1979 -
President Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan (F) 
Notes Elected on 31 March 2016, re-elected on 21 July 2016.
Secretary General Nguyen Hanh Phuc (M) 
Members (statutory / current number) 500 / 494

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Women (current number) 132 (26.72%)
Mode of designation directly elected 500
Notes In accordance with the law on the organization of the National Assembly, the number of members shall not exceed 500.
Term 5 years
Last renewal dates 22 May 2016
(View details)
Address Assemblée nationale
37 Hung Vuong
(Export mailing lists)
Phone (84) 804 61 15
804 61 16
Fax (84) 4 3734 0815
E-mail IPU@qh.gov.vn


Parliament name (generic / translated) Quoc-Hoi / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Electoral law 1 September 2015
(Law on Election of Deputies to the National Assembly and Deputies to People's Councils)
Mode of designation directly elected 500
Constituencies 184 multi-member constituencies
Voting system Majority: Majority vote in two rounds
Members are elected to the National Assembly in individual electoral units. Provinces and cities directly under the central Government may constitute a single electoral unit or be divided into several units. The number of electoral units and number of members to be elected by each is based on population.
Within each electoral unit, candidates obtaining the most votes and more than one half of the votes cast in the unit are declared elected.

A simple majority second round vote takes place among the original candidates if either:
- all the seats to be allocated in a unit have not been filled when all the votes in that unit have been counted; or
- the number of electors who voted is less than half of those registered.

Vacancies arising between general elections are filled through by-elections, unless the remaining parliamentary term is less than two years.
Voting is not compulsory.
Voter requirements - Age: 18 years
- Vietnamese citizenship
- Voters in custody, who are otherwise detained or who are serving out a period in a compulsory education or compulsory detoxification establishment may have their name included in the voter list in the province where they currently reside.
- Disqualifications: mental illness
Eligibility - Qualified electors
- Age: 21 years
- Vietnamese citizenship

Incompatibilities (not applicable)
Candidacy requirements - All citizens have the right to stand for election
- Candidate lists are presented by the Viet Nam Fatherland Front
- At least 18 percent of candidates must be from ethnic minorities and at least 35 percent of candidates must be women.


Parliament name (generic / translated) Quoc-Hoi / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Dates of election / renewal (from/to) 22 May 2016
Timing and scope of renewal As in previous elections, the Communist Party - the only legal political party in Viet Nam – presented most of the candidates for election to the 500-member National Assembly (see note). In 2016, 870 candidates stood for election, including 97 non-party members (down from 118) and 11 self-nominated candidates (those who are not nominated by State or party agencies, down from 15). The 2015 electoral law requires that at least 35 per cent of candidates be women. At the 2016 election, 39% of the candidates were women. All candidatures, irrespective of category, were screened by the Fatherland Front, an umbrella body of pro-government mass-movements close to the Communist Party.

The 2016 elections followed the 12th National Congress of the Communist Party in January which re-elected Mr. Nguyen Phu Trong as General Secretary of the Party's Central Committee. The Secretary General pledged to move Vietnam towards modernisation. Prior to the 2016 elections, the National Assembly chose the country's new leaders. On 31 March, Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan was elected as the first woman Speaker in Viet Nam. On 2 and 7 April, the National Assembly elected Mr. Tran Dai Quang as the new President and Mr. Nguyen Xuan Phuc as the new Prime Minister.

On polling day, Communist Party General Secretary Trong called on all candidates to "serve the country and the people and fully implement duties and responsibilities stipulated by the Constitution and law to take part in national governance". According to the election commission, 99.35 percent of nearly 70 million registered voters turned out at the polls. The successful candidates included 475 Communist Party members and 21 non-party members among which 2 were self-nominated candidates. In all, 133 women and 86 people from ethnic minorities were elected.

Note: In accordance with the law on the organization of the National Assembly, the statutory number of members shall not exceed 500. In 2016, 496 members were elected.
Date of previous elections: 22 May 2011

Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature: 19 July 2016

Timing of election: Upon normal expiry

Expected date of next elections: May 2021

Number of seats at stake: 500 (full renewal)

Number of candidates: 870 (531 men, 339 women)

Percentage of women candidates: 39%

Number of parties contesting the election: 1

Number of parties winning seats: 1

Alternation of power: No

Number of parties in government: 1

Names of parties in government: Communist Party

Date of the first session of the new parliament: 20 July 2016

Name of the new Speaker: Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan (Communist Party)
Voter turnout
Round no 122 May 2016
Number of registered electors
Blank or invalid ballot papers
Valid votes
67'049'091 (99.35%)

Distribution of votes
Round no 1
Political group Candidates Votes % of votes
Communist Party
Distribution of seats
Round no 1
Political Group Total of seats
Communist Party 473
Non-party 21
Distribution of seats according to sex


Percent of women


Distribution of seats according to age
Distribution of seats according to profession
National Assembly (09.06.2016, 18.07.2016, 30.08.2016)

Note on the distribution of seats:
The number of "Non-party members" above includes two self-nominated members.
Two candidates-elect (one man and one woman, both members of the Communist Party) were disqualified before the first session of the newly elected National Assembly held on 20 July.
Consequently, the number of seats for the Communist Party decreased from 475 to 473.

Note on the "Distribution of seats according to sex":
Initially, 133 women were elected out of 496 candidates.
Two candidates-elect (one man and one woman) were disqualified before the first session of the newly elected National Assembly held on 20 July.
The number of women thus decreased from 133 to 132 out of 494 members.


Parliament name (generic / translated) Quoc-Hoi / National Assembly
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Title President of the National Assembly
Term - duration: 5 years (term of House)
- reasons for interruption of the term: resignation, death, dissolution
Appointment - elected by all Members of the Assembly
- the election is held at the beginning of the first session of the newly elected Assembly
- after the Members' mandates have been validated and after the Members have been sworn in
Eligibility - candidates must be recommended by the Standing Committee of the previous Assembly
Voting system - formal vote by secret ballot
- a simple majority is required
Procedures / results - the President and the Standing Committee of previous National Assemblies preside over the Assembly during the voting
- an Election Committee appointed by the National Assembly supervises the voting
- the Election Committee announces the results without delay
- the results cannot be challenged
Status - represents the Assembly with the authorities
- is ex officio Chairman of the Standing Committee
- represents the Assembly in international bodies
- in the absence of the President of the Assembly, the Vice-President can assume his/her role and functions
Material facilities - allowance
- official residence
- official car
- secretariat
- domestic staff
- bodyguards
Organization of parliamentary business - convenes sessions
- establishes and modifies the agenda
- organizes the debates and sets speaking time
- examines the admissibility of bills and amendments
- refers texts to a committee for study
- examines the admissibility of requests for setting up committees and/or committees of enquiry, proposes or decides on the setting-up of such committees
Chairing of public sittings - can open, adjourn and close sittings
- ensures respect for provisions of the Constitution and Standing Orders
- makes announcements concerning the Assembly
- takes disciplinary measures in the event of disturbance, and lifts such measures
- establishes the list of speakers, gives and withdraws permission to speak
- establishes the order in which amendments are taken up and selects which amendments are to be debated
- calls for a vote, decides how it is to be carried out, verifies the voting procedure and cancels a vote in the event of irregularities
- checks the quorum
- authenticates the texts adopted and the records of debates
- interprets the rules or other regulations governing the life of the Assembly, based on precedents

Special powers - takes part in the approval process of the Assembly's budget
- plays a specific role in the conduct of foreign affairs or defence matters
- is responsible for relations with foreign Parliaments
- is responsible for safety, and in this capacity, can call the police in the event of disturbance in the Assembly
Speaking and voting rights, other functions - takes the floor in legislative debates
- provides guidelines for the interpretation or completion of the text under discussion
- takes part in voting
- proposes bills or amendments
- intervenes in the parliamentary oversight procedure
- is consulted in certain circumstances (dissolution, appointment of the Head of Government, etc.)

This page was last updated on 30 August 2016
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